Phek District was bifurcated in 1973 from Kohima district. It lies in the South-East of Nagaland, bounded by Kohima District in the West, Zunheboto and Kiphire Districts in the North, Myanmar in the South East and Manipur State in the South. The name of the district Phek is derived from the word "Phekrekedze" meaning watch tower. Earlier it was a part of Kohima district, but separated as a district on December 21, 1973. The district inhabited by the Chakhesangs and Pochurys tribes of Mongoloid race. The word "Chakhesang" an amalgamation of the names of three sub-tribes - "cha" from "Chokri", "khe" from "Chesham (Kuzha)" and "Sang" from "Sangtam (Pochury)". The medium of communication with others are mainly Tenyidie and Nagamese, however among the elderly people, Tenyidie is still a convenient language to communicate. There are three main linguistic groups in the Phek such as Chokri with a population of 95,576, Khezha with a population of 34,363 and Pochury with a population of 18,307 making total population of  1,48,246(2001 census). The accent difference varies from village to village even among these three linguistic groups. For an example, even among the Pochury speaking group, there are at least eight different dialects which varies from one village to another.

Phek is a hilly district rich in flora and fauna. There are three important rivers namely Tizu, Lanye, and Sedzu and three important lakes called Shilloi, Chida and Dzudu. Summer is moderately warm and winter is cold. Monsoon sets in by the last week of May and retreats by the end of September. Agriculture is the main occupation with 80.84 % of the population engaged in agriculture. Terrace Rice Cultivation (TRC) is predominant. Besides agriculture people engage in salt making (in Meluri area) weaving, bamboo and wood carving, and in making fruit juice.

The National Highway No.150 crosses certain part of the District from Kohima to Jessami (under Manipur, on the way to Meluri) and N.H.155 from Jessami to Tuensang via Meluri, Akhegwo and Kiphire. The only Cement factory in the State, i.e. Weziho Cement Factory, which can produce 150 TPD, is in Meluri Sub-Division. Decorative Stone Factory is now in function at Weziho. Most of the village are linked with electricity.

Natural flowing Brine water is available in about 7 villages of the district. The locally baked salt; as per medical experts is goiter-free and is good for health. Even Brine can be kept in stock in quantity for sale in the market. There are other small-scale industries, like basket making and different weaving centers which can bring sustainable development to small entrepreneurs of the district. These small-scale industries need to be modernized with modern scientific machineries to make it recurrent income generating industries. Phek District is regarded as the richest areas of mineral deposits such as limestone, Decorative marbles, Crystallized, etc.

Position in relation to longitude and latitude :

Longitude: 940- 35- 18 to 940- 38-09 E (L)

Latitude : 250 -37-37 to 250-39-47 N (LT)

Altitude from MSL

Highest-2133 m MSL (Pfutsero)

Lowest-520 m MSL (Lanyie)

Boundaries of your district :

E: Kiphre/Myanmar W: Kohima N: Zunheboto/Kiphre S: Manipur NE: Kiphre SE: Manipur SW: Manipur NW: Zonobhoto & Myanmar

Total population :

1,48,246 (2001 census)

Area of the district :

2026 sq.km

Population density :

73 person/sqkm

Literacy percentage :

71.35%

Status of agriculture :

Rain fed and shifting

Farmers :

40315

Farm Labour mobility :

Minimum

Block wise information :

Demographic of Phek

Sl. No

Name of the Block

Population (as per 2001 census. Total)

% of literacy

 Male (No)

Female (No)

1

Phek

26392

71.35

13787

12605

2

Kikruma

31812

71.35

16497

15315

3

Pfutsero

41455

71.35

21322

20133

4

Meluri

20872

71.35

11028

9844

5

Sekrezu

27715

71.35

14448

13267

 

Total

148246

71.35

77082

71164

Source : SREP, ATMA, Phek

No of Agriculture worker

Sl. No.

Name of the Block

Worker Nos.

Categories No.

Agri

Non-agri

SC

ST

OBC

General

Male

Female

Male

Female

1

Phek

11775

11993

2012

612

Nil

ST

Nil

Nil

2

Kikruma

11045

14887

1560

428

Nil

ST

Nil

Nil

3

Pfutsero

18808

19493

2514

640

Nil

ST

Nil

Nil

4

Meluri

10369

9485

659

359

Nil

ST

Nil

Nil

5

Sekrezu

12556

12446

1892

821

 

 

 

 

 

Total

64551

68304

8637

2860

Nil

ST

Nil

Nil

Source : SREP, ATMA, Phek

Pattern of rainfall in different months (Provide as high, medium or low)

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

April.

May.

Jun.

Jul.

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

low

low

low

medium

High

High

High

High

High

medium

low

low

Critical periods for plant growth in Phek

Sl.No

Crop

Critical period of growth

Coinciding Calendar month (s)

1

Paddy

Tillering and Panicle stage

Aug-Sept

2

Maize

Tasselling stage

May- June

4

Soyabean

Flowering stage

Aug-sept

5

Naga dal

Flowering stage

April-May

6

Cow pea

Flowering stage

April-May

7

Kholar bean

Flowering stage

April-May

8

Passion fruit

Flowering stage

April-may, November-Dec

9

Pear

Flowering stage

April-May

10

Peach

Flowering stage

Feb-March

11

Banana

Initiation of  bunch

Nov-Dec

12

Guava

Flowering stage

Mar-April, Sept-Oct

13

Plum

Flowering stage

Feb-March

14

Cabbage

Head formation

May-July, Nov-Jan

16

Local garlic

Bulb formation

Oct-Nov

17

Ginger

Rhizome formation

Oct-Nov

Soils : Classes of the soil groups present in the district Phek:

            1. Black soil:               36468ha

            2. Red soil:                  24312 ha

            3. Alluvial soil:            18234ha

            4. Sandy soils:             6078ha

5. Red laterite soil:      117508 ha

Soil fertility status (in general) : Medium

Irrigation

Area under Irrigation                       :           15450 ha

Irrigation potential                           :           20000 ha                                            

Source of Irrigation

            1. Rivers                                         :           5 nos.

            2. Tanks                                         :           96 nos.

            3. Open wells                                 :           Nil                                                      

4. Bore wells                                  :           Nil

            5. Any other Sources (Lake)           :           3 nos

 Land use and cropping intensity

            Gross cropped area                        :           44870  ha                                           

            Net Area sown                               :           42950  ha                                           

Fallow lands                                   :           NA                             

Cultivable waste lands                     :           38630  ha

Forest cover                                   :           56589  ha

Barren Land                                   :           NA                                         

Cropping intensity                           :           120%              

Socio-economic Characteristics, Land holding Pattern

Average size of land holdings           :           3.88 ha                                                           

Average fragmentation intensity        :          2-3 nos

Existing land tenure for farming         :           3-6 yrs                        

Source(s) of finance for farming

Rank.1 SBI-5nos

Rank.2 State Cooperative Bank-3 nos

Rank.3 Nagaland Rural- 2 nos

Main source of income for farmers           

Rank.1 Agriculture                 

Rank.2 Livestock

Commercial commodities produced

Rank.1 Ginger

Rank.2 Large cardamom

Rank 3. Cabbage

Rank 4. Passion fruit

Rank 5. Plum


Farm Machinery and implements available in Phek

Number of tractors

8 nos

Number of Power Tillers

95  nos

Number of Carts

Nil nos

Types of implements- ploughs

240 nos

Cultivators

103 nos           

Discs

28 nos

Harrows

8 nos   

Others

Nil nos

Pumps (oil and electrical)

Nil

Harvesters and Threshers

Thresher- 1892

Sprayers and Dusters

520 nos

Agro-climatic Zones

            Zones in Nagaland state        

    1. Sub Alpine temperate zone (1500-3500m MSL)
    2. Sub tropical Hill Zone (1000-1500m MSL)
    3. Sub tropical Plain zone (400-1000m MSL)
    4. Mild tropical Hill zone (200-800m MSL)

Agro-climatic Zones in Phek 

    1. Sub Alpine temperate zone (1500-3500m MSL)
    2. Sub tropical Hill Zone (1000-1500m MSL)
    3. Mild tropical Hill zone (200-800m MSL)

Tradition, cultural and social identity of the district in brief:

The Chakhesangs and Pochurys are known for their rich cultures and traditions. There are varieties of traditional attires and ornaments. The melodies folk songs and the lively folk dances are feast for the ears and eyes. The people are expert craftsmen and excellent in making pots, baskets, sculptures and furniture. The society is patrimonial but women enjoy a high status in their families. The customary laws are unwritten but practiced by all villages. These laws are binding to members of the society and are being passed on from generation to generation by the words of mouth. The elderly people of the village decide and pass the judgment on disputes and matters concerning the village.

Festivals observed in Phek District

Phek is land of festivals, one festival celebrated after other round the year. The main inhabitant, chakhesang have one of the most beautiful culture and festivals in the state. The festival revolves around agriculture which is the important source of income to the most of the people of the district. Those who hold prestigious status in the community such as brave warriors and persons who could arrange feast of merit are looked up and honoured. These people earn the beautiful and symbolic shawl and their houses are decorated with horns in front and at the back. The villages have slight difference of timing for festivals due to climatic conditions, yet the reason and the mode of festivals are basically same. The following festivals are celebrated one after the other through out the year.

Folk dance of Chakhesang tribe

Khuthonye (July): It is celebrated during July after completion of the terraced field cultivations. The farmers work and toil hard for a month to procure a year provisions. Having completed the work of cultivation everyone poor or rich eat and drink heartily to regain the lost energies. This is also a time for harvesting millet therefore coinciding with Khuthonye the millet festival, "CHUNYE" is also celebrated.

Turhinye (August): This is a festival with the objective of preserving the crops from wild animals which may destroy the labours and their hard work. During this festival community work such as repairing, cleaning of roads and their village paths are done before the festival. It is celebrated during the month of August.

Thurinye (December): This festival is celebrated in December, after all the harvest, when the granaries are full of grain. A chaste bachelor has to perform a ceremonial rite called "MUDZU", wherein a spotless piglet will be killed first. This will be followed by the rest of the villagers killing their own domestic animals and start the feast. People are jubilant they offer thanks to the Gods for protecting their crops from sowing to the stage of harvest.

Sukrunye (January): It is celebrated during the middle of January. Of all the festivals it is the most important because it is the ceremony to ensure good health of the community during the coming year. The main highlight of the festival is "SUKRU" meant for the menfolk. It implies the sanctification of the young boys. Earlier in the morning all menfolk visit the village spring, where they wash themselves, their weapons and tools and cloth in fresh water before any animals touch the water. They believe all misfortunes and physical ailments have been washed away. On return, every male who is old enough to do so kills an unblemished cock, but it must be killed by throttling it with his hand only. Thus, it stretches to days of celebration by feasting, dancing and singing through out the day and night till dawn.

Ngunye (February): This festival falls in February. It is a festival for rejoicing where traditional games and sports are played. It is marked with singing indigenous songs, folk dances and wrestling. People from all khels march in procession in their traditional attires.

Tukhanye (April): This is the last festival celebrated during April. This festival marks the beginning of the yearly routine of hard work cultivation. Now that all the festivals are over the people are not at rest. They become more active for the cultivation activities. The Chakhesang people celebrate festivals from 1 to 11 days with outmost gaiety. People put on new cloth and decorate themselves with priceless traditional ornaments. They eat and drink and have a sense of hospitality far beyond his resources. Participation of men and women is the most prominent feature. They sing songs, dance and recite about their ancestor's meritorious velour and participate in the festival with a sense of unity and equality. The chakhesang has many peculiarities among them, Muchi ( Yelling), Dothi ( High Kicking), Kunu ( Wrestling), Kutsushu ( Stone Pulling Monolith) etc. are of the peculiar features of this area.

Agricultural marketing system:

Marketing of agriculture produce of some of the village is done by APMC. But due to remoteness and poor connectivity of roads to urban areas the department is unable to market the produce of majority of the villages. Marketing of village produce is mostly done by the farmers themselves.

Table 1. Ways of disposal of farm produce and by products

Sl.No

Major Farm produce

Marketing channel

Bye Product (if any)

Marketing channel

1

Paddy

Not Marketed

Rice police & broken rice

Use as Pig feed

2

Maize

Self marketing

No

NA

3

Cabbage

Self marketing

No

NA

4

Large cardamom

APMC

No

NA

5

Ginger

APMC

No

NA

6

Passion fruit

APMC

No

NA

7.

Plum

Self marketing

No

NA

8.

Peach

Self marketing

No

NA

9.

Pear

Self marketing

No

NA

10.

Apple

Self marketing

No

NA

 

Table 2. Information regarding markets for the district PHEK

Sl. No.

Name of the block

Name of the market centre

Periodicity (Weekly/ Daily)

Important commodi-ties handled

Commodity wise quantity handled (Annual)

Area covered

1

Phek

Phek Town

Daily

Groceries, Vegetables, Fish, Meats etc.

Not assessed

Phek district

2

Kikruma

Kikruma Town

Weekly

Groceries, Vegetables, Fish, Meats etc.

Not assessed

Kikruma Block

3

Pfütsero

Pfütsero market

Seasonal/ Daily

Vegetables & fruits

Not assessed

Pfütsero Block

4

Meluri

Meluri  Town

Roadside daily market

Groceries, Vegetables, Fish, Meats etc.

Not assessed

Meluri Block

5

Sekrezu

Sukrezu Town

 

 

 

Sukrezu Block

market